Must Read: Paul @Gronke’s Expert Report in League of Women Voters of North Carolina, et al. v. North Carolina

Gronke’s full report is available here

Of particular interest to ElectionSmith readers, this paragraph on page 12:

Two recent articles on the racial impact of voting law changes in Florida, one published in the Election Law Journal (ELJ)21 and the second published in Political Research Quarterly are particularly pertinent to this report. In the first, the authors examined the impact of a new Florida law passed in 2011 that truncated the state’s early voting period and eliminated voting on the last Sunday
before Election Day. The authors reported that “Democratic, African American, Hispanic, younger, and first-time voters were disproportionately likely to vote early in 2008 . . . We expect these types of voters to be disproportionately affected by the recent changes to Florida’s voting laws.”22 The second article followed up on the initial research conducted in the ELJ article. In this second
piece, the authors examine the racial and ethnic composition of the early inperson electorate in Florida using voter registration and voter history files. They show that Black early-in person participation dropped by four percentage points as a consequence of the cutback in early voting, while White early in-person participation dropped less than a percentage point. This difference is not due to changing composition of the electorate.23


22 Michael C. Herron and Daniel A. Smith, “Souls to the Polls: Early Voting in Florida in the Shadow of House Bill 1355,” Election Law Journal 11, no. 3 (2012): 331.
23 See Michael C. Herron and Daniel A. Smith, “Race, Party, and the Consequences of Restricting Early Voting in Florida in the 2012 General Election,” Political Research Quarterly (published online Feb. 24, 2014),, at Tables 2 & 3.