Archives for category: Florida

In his detailed article today, New York Times Upshot’s Nate Cohn asks the following:

“Is it possible that the registered Democrats who turned out were Trump supporters, and that the Democrats who stayed home were likelier to be supporters of Mrs. Clinton? Perhaps, but our polling suggests the opposite. In our pre-election Upshot/Siena polls, voters were likelier than nonvoters to support their party’s nominee.”

My preliminary analysis from Florida suggests otherwise. Along with my UF Election Sciences team, we painstakingly collected precinct-level election results for Trump and Clinton by method of voting (early in-person, vote-by-mail, and Election Day) from the nearly 6,000 precincts in Florida’s 67 counties, parsed them and cleaned them up, and then merged the presidential results with precinct information gleaned from the Florida voter file. Since we know which method of voting Florida voters used to cast their ballots, we’re able to make lots of different kinds of precise estimates. One goes to the heart of Nate’s question, at least for Florida.

The plot below shows the proportion of total votes cast on Election Day by White Democrats in each precinct, and the vote share for Trump and Clinton won on Election Day.  The horizontal (X-axis) reveals that the range of White Democratic Election Day voters making up a precinct’s total Election Day votes ranges from 0% (e.g., heavily Republican, or Hispanic and Black precincts) to a handful that top 40%.

The precinct dots (weighted by Election Day turnout) and the accompanying lowess fit lines suggest a telling pattern: Trump generally won a greater share of the Election Day vote in precincts where the share of White Democrats exceeded 5% of the total Election Day votes cast on Election day. The greater the share of White Democratic Election Day voters, the greater Trump’s share of the vote.

WhiteEDDem_ResultsWeightTurnout

(This is the identical plot, just with Trump’s precinct vote share overlaying Clinton’s precinct vote share.)

WhiteEDDem_ResultsWeightTurnout2

Interestingly, the pattern doesn’t exist for either Early In-Person or Vote-by-Mail votes cast in a precinct by White Democrats (see below), suggesting that some 11th hour surprise (hmmm, I wonder what that could have been, James Comey?), may have influenced the vote choice of White Democrats who waited until Election Day to cast their ballots.

Nate asks, “So how much did turnout contribute to Mr. Trump’s victory? As the party registration numbers and turnout figures by race imply, just a bit. But Mr. Trump won the election by just a bit — by only 0.7 percentage points in Pennsylvania, for example.”

That seems reasonable.

Let’s take a closer look at the precinct results in Florida.

Trump crushed Clinton across Florida’s precincts that had high voter turnout, as the figure below reveals (with the size of the precincts weighted by the total votes cast).  Trump won a greater share of the total votes cast in the smattering of low turnout precincts, but more impressively, in precincts with turnout (of registered voters) that exceeded 75%. For example, he won more than 60% of the total votes cast (which includes write-ins and 3rd party votes) in precincts with greater than 90% turnout.

TotVoters_OverallTurnout_PrecinctResults

Trump also crushed Clinton in precincts that had high rates of Whites voting on Election Day. The figure below reveals that Trump won bigly in precincts in which Whites comprised more than 65% of those who waited until Election day to turn out (precinct size is weighted by Election Day Turnout).

WhiteEDVoters_PrecinctResultsWeightTurnout

So, it appears that that Trump did well in Florida not only in precincts with high voter turnout, but also in those where White voters turned out on Election Day.

More to come…

fl-presidential-vote-by-method

 

We’re still missing data from a couple counties, but the pattern of Election Day support for Trump is nothing less than…Trumpian.

White voter turnout in Florida from 2012 to 2016 jumped by nearly 4 percentage points, from 73.1% of active voters casting ballots in 2012, to 77.1% of active voters casting ballots in 2016.

Black turnout, which was a major concern for Democrats with President Obama no longer on the ballot, was down by 3.3 percentage points, from 72.3% to 69.0% of active voters.

Hispanic turnout, which saw a dramatic increase from 2012 to 2016 during the early voting period in Florida, was up overall, from 63.1% of active voters casting ballots in 2012, to 68.9% in 2016.

Overall in 2016, Florida’s electorate was less white in 2016 than four years ago.  Whites comprised 68.4% of the electorate in 2012; in 2016, they comprised 66.8% of voters. The difference, not surprisingly, is due to Hispanics making up a greater share of the electorate, from just 12.5% in 2012 to 14.8% in 2016.

It is erroneous to conclude that higher Hispanic turnout in Florida led to greater support for Trump. This is a classic example of an ecological inference fallacy, as others have shown at the precinct level in Miami-Dade County, and as my colleagues and I will be investigating more thoroughly statewide (and by method of vote cast) in the coming days.

Roughly 9.59m Floridians turned out to vote in the 2016 General Election, or 74% of the state’s 12.96m active voters.

Of the Floridians who turned out in 2016, 28.4% cast a valid vote-by-mail, 40.4% cast a valid early in-person ballot, and 30.9% voted a valid ballot on Election Day.

But, as in past elections, these figures vary considerably across party and race/ethnicity.

Overall, of the 9.589m votes cast by active voters, more votes were cast by Republicans (38.7%) than Democrats (38.1%) with NPAs comprising another 20.7% of the electorate.

Among the active Democrats who voted in the 2016 GE, 72.3% cast their ballots prior to Election Day, whereas 31.5% of Republicans waited until Election Day.

In raw numbers, this translates into more than 157k Republicans voting on November 8 than Democrats.

Not surprisingly, there’s a similar breakdown across racial/ethnic groups.

Whites made up nearly 67% of those who cast ballots in the 2016 GE, while Hispanics comprised nearly 15% of all voters, and blacks 12.5%.

Nearly 52% of all blacks who voted cast early in-person ballots, and another 20% voted absentee.  Among Hispanics, nearly 45% voted early in-person, and another roughly 27% voted by mail. As such, only 27.5% of blacks and 28.2% of Hispanics who voted cast ballots on Election Day.

Contrast these figures with whites. 32% of whites who voted waited until Election Day to do so; another 37% of ballots cast by whites were early in-person, and the balance of 31% were cast by mail.

So, while minorities disproportionately voted early in-person in Florida, whites cast a greater share of votes by mail and ballots on Election Day.  Although they comprised 66.8% of the electorate, whites cast 72% of all vote-by-mail ballots and 69% of all Election Day ballots.

In the final analysis, raw numbers reveal the real story of the 2016 Presidential election in Florida: over a million white Republicans voted on Election Day, nearly double the number of Democrats who waited until Election Day to cast their ballots.

According to the Florida Division of Elections, some 9.58m Floridians turned out to vote in the 2016 General Election, or 74.5% of the “Active” registered voters at the time of the state’s October bookclosing.

After some routine parsing and cleaning (more on that later), I’ve crunched the numbers from the January 10, 2017 statewide voter file and vote history files.

According to these records, some 9.592m registered voters (active & inactive) cast ballots in the 2016 General Election, or 69.98% of the state’s 13.7m registered voters. When limiting votes cast to just those who are considered “Active” by the counties, the total votes cast drops to 9.590m, indicating that nearly 2,600 “inactive” voters cast ballots. (The plurality of these “inactive” voters, incidentally, were Democrats.)

As for turnout among party registrants (limiting the following analysis to “active” voters), 74.4% of the state’s 4.908m Democrats turned out to vote. In contrast, 81.2% of the state’s 4.577m registered Republicans cast ballots. Only 63.3% of the state’s 3.132m No Party Affiliates (NPAs) voted, whereas 70.2% of the 347k Third Party registrants turned out.

With respect to turnout by race/ethnicity, 77.1% of the state’s 8.302m white voters voted. That’s considerably higher than the 68.9% turnout rate of the state’s 2.055m registered Hispanics and the 69.0% turnout rate of the state’s 1.743m registered blacks.

What about race/ethnicity by party?

Among Democrats, 77.5% of the 2.39m white Democrats voted; 70.9% of the 812k Hispanic Democrats voted; and 72.1% of the 1.41m black Democrats voted.

Among Republicans, 82.6% of the 3.814m white Republicans voted; 75.4% of the 519k Hispanic Republicans voted; and 61.2% of the 61.3k black Republicans voted.

Among NPAs, 66.0% of the 1.819m white NPAs voted; 61.9% of the 693k Hispanic NPAs voted; and 54.1% of the 255k black NPAs voted.

In previous posts, I’ve documented extensively the early in-person and vote-by-mail turnout rates by party and race, but until now, we haven’t been able to delve into Election Day turnout.  I’m working on a couple of academic papers on this topic, so I’m not going to go into details here.

But here’s the kicker:

Of the roughly 2.959m voters who cast ballots on Election Day, 39.5% of ballots cast were by Republicans.  Only 34.2% of ballots cast on Election Day were by Democrats. Another 23.4% of Election Day ballots were cast by NPAs, and 2.9% were cast by Third Party registrants.

Say what you will about the many developments in the waning days of the campaign that likely hurt Clinton, her ground game in Florida apparently failed to deliver, as nearly 1.3m active Democrats stayed home.

Look forward to joining USF’s Dr. Susan MacManus tonight at the Bob Graham Center at Pugh Hall, University of Florida, for our Election Recap.

Should be Live Streaming here.

Monday, November 14, 2016 – 6:00 pm

Two of Florida’s most prominent political commentators, Susan MacManus and Dan Smith, will discuss the results and implications of the 2016 elections at the Bob Graham Center on Monday, Nov. 14 at 6 p.m. in Pugh Hall.

Dr. Susan MacManus, Florida’s most-quoted political scientist, is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of South Florida in the Department of Government and International Affairs. Since 2008, she has been a featured columnist on sayfiereview.com—a widely-read Florida-based political website. MacManus has appeared as a panelist on WFLA TV’s Road to the White House program which was nominated for a Suncoast Emmy award in 2008. Aside from authoring numerous books, she has also appeared on every major cable television and radio network and has been interviewed by several major newspapers in Florida, the U.S., and abroad.

Dr. Daniel Smith is a University of Florida Research Foundation (2010-2012) Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida. He is fundamentally interested in how political institutions affect political behavior across the United States. He has published more than eighty scholarly articles and numerous books on the politics and process of direct democracy and voting rights and elections in the U.S.

Here’s the race/ethnic share of the 549k Democrats, 588k Republicans, 272k NPAs, and 35k 3rd party voters who didn’t vote in 2012 but who cast ballots ahead of Election Day.

Dem Rep NPA 3rd Total
Other 5.0 3.2 9.3 4.19 5.1
Black 23.2 0.87 5.7 3.9 10.3
Hisp. 18.5 12.9 25.8 10.2 17.4
White 53.3 83.1 59.2 81.8 67.2
Total 100 100 100 100 100

And inversely, here’s party breakdown for the 73k other, 149k blacks, 251k Hispanics, and 970k whites who’ve already voted but who didn’t vote in 2012..

Dem Rep NPA 3rd Total
Other 37.9 25.4 34.8 2.0 100
Black 85.3 3.4 10.4 0.9 100
Hisp. 40.5 30.2 27.9 1.4 100
White 30.1 50.4 16.6 3.0 100
Total 38.0 40.7 18.8 2.4 100

 

Most importantly, here’s the breakdown of the analysis of the Florida electorate that I’ll be crunching tomorrow…

miami-dade

Ahead of Election Day, 2.56m Democrats have cast ballots, 2.47m Republicans have cast ballots, 1.24m No Party Affiliates have cast ballots, and 154k voters registered with 3rd Parties have cast ballots.

3.52m women and 2.76m men have voted, with another 139k votes cast by voters whose gender is not reported.

And by race/ethnicity, 4.23m whites, 980k Hispanics, 841k blacks, and 375k voters of mixed, other or unknown race have cast ballots.

By gender, what follows are tables with the share of votes cast across party registration for each racial/ethnic group.

Percent of Early Votes Cast by Women
Other Black Hispanic White Total
Dem 43.9 88.2 43.2 34.2 44.1
Rep 23.4 2.2 27.4 47.2 36.2
NPA 30.9 9.0 28.2 16.1 17.7
3rd 1.8 0.7 1.3 2.6 2.0
Total 100 100 100 100 100
Percent of Early Votes Cast by Men
Other Black Hispanic White Total
Dem 37.0 81.4 38.1 26.3 34.6
Rep 25.8 4.0 31.0 51.8 42.2
NPA 34.8 13.1 29.2 18.5 20.3
3rd 2.4 1.5 1.7 3.4 2.9
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